Anomalies and Disorders in Beak and Feathers
Dr Didier Boussarie
Clinique Vétérinaire des Epinettes
P: 03 23 23 37 47
F: 03 23 23 04 99
I. BEAK DISORDERS
The avian beak grows continuously. It is composed of two jaws: a maxilla and a lower mandible. They are composed of bone and are covered with keratinized sheath called rhamphotheca (rhinotheca for the maxilla and gnatotheca for the mandible). The epidermis is closely joined to the bone and the stratum corneum is very thick. The mandible is connected to the skull by the square bone. Replacement and growth are dependent on species (in large parrots, beak replaced in 6 months).
1. Abnormal growth
a. Nutritional origins: vitamin D3 deficiency, diet with a too high protein rate (frugivorous), soft food.
b. Parasitic origin: beak mite (Cnemidocoptes pilae), in Melopsittacus undulatus.
c. Other origins: genetic, hepatic, viral.
2. Soft beak
3. Colour changes
4. Beak malformations
i. Nutritional origin
ii. Infectious origin
b. Lateral deviation: scissor beak
c. Mandibular Prognathism
d. Deformations by lateral mandible compression
5. Beak traumas
a. Maxilla luxation
b. Beak fractures
i. Stop haemorrhage
ii. Put the bones and rhamphotheca onto a same line
iii. Solidarize it with metallic ligatures or broches
iv. Around it, use a prosthesis in resin or in cement glass ionomere
v. Treat with anti infectious.
vi. The fractures are more frequent on maxillas than in mandibles. The post-operatory remaining problems are possible: malocclusion, lateral deviations.
THE CERE DISORDERS
The cere is the naked skin situated at the base of the maxilla. It sometimes is an element of sexual dimorphism (Melopsittacus undulatus: blue in the male and brown in the female).
1. Crust and (or) hypertrophy lesions. The origin is infectious in most cases.
a. Beak mite (Knemidokoptes pilae): Melopsittacus undulatus
b. Poxvirus: pox in canary
c. Trichomonosis: columbiformes et Nymphicus hollandicus
d. Mycobacteriosis: (Mycobacterium avium, M. intracellulaire) in Passeriformes and psittacines.
e. Infections to Candida
f. Vitamin B deficiency
2. Colour change
a. Testicular tumours in the male Melopsittacus undulatus
b. Brown hypertrophy of the cere in the old female Melopsittacus undulatus quantity of carotenoids in the diet (raptors)
a. Abscess: psittacines
b. Rhinoliths: psittacines